Muslims often claim that the manuscript of the Quran housed in the Topkapi Museum in Istangul, Turkey, is one of the oldest sources. Muslims say it dates from around 650 AD. There is an insurmountable problem with this. This document is written in KUFIC (also known as al-Khatt al-Kufi) script...dated from the mid to end of the 8th century. The only script used during and right after Muhammad's days was the JAZM (aka Hijazi script) script.
The Samarkand (aka Othman Quran) in the Soviet Library in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, also uses the KUFIC script, indicating 8th century. Many believe it it the oldest in existence, although efforts to carbon date the material have been denied. To date the Othman Quran has never been carbon dated. Only about 1/3 of the original survives.
Interesting to also note are the Sana Manuscripts, which were discovered in 1972, were written in JAZM (aka Hijazi) and they have been dated to approx late 600's AD to early 700's AD, some insist even earlier but carbon testings did confirm early 700's is more likely, late 600's for the Palimpsests. The use of JAZM/HIJAZI script also confirms this. The Sana Manuscripts have now been confirmed to be the oldest Quranic text in existence.
Aside: What is disturbing (to Muslims) about the Sana Manuscripts is this:
- Whole sections of the Sana Manuscripts were later added in the 8th century to the majority of the main content, in addition, even earlier versions, palimpsests (earlier text written under older text, then the earlier text is scraped-off, also restored, reveal even earlier versions), are confirmed.
- Over 1,000 variants have been found in comparison to the Arabic Quran of today.
- 2 Tribes mentioned in the Sana manuscript do not appear in the Arabic Quran today.
- Pre-Islamic sources mentioned in the Sana Manuscript do not appear in the Arabic Quran today (dealing with the "One Allah" pre-Islam).
- The Sana Manuscript's many abberations do not mirror the Arabic Quran of today.
- The Sana Manuscripts reveal a "textual evolution" and confirm the Quran(s) of today does not mesh with the oldest Quran.
oh, well there's so much more...if interested, spend a fair amount of time reviewing all the available resource available at this time.
Also interesting is how Muslims tend to ingore or deny or even provide excuse after excuse - especially regarding the palimpsests, which they sometimes like to insist were merely "exercises in script," lol - they were not and this is indisputable.
Btw, all languages have "several different" meanings. Even in English, most all words have variant meanings. But, the established meaning in any narrative is understood because it has in fact been established by virtue of the narrative itself.
The problem is, deceitful Muslims will try and use alternate meanings to disquise the obvious.